MIDI Files of Classical and Recorder Music




The MIDI files and MP3 files presented here are all sequenced by the site owner. They are based on the instrument map of SC-88 (Roland). Please keep in mind that musical expressions intended may not be reproduced faithfully by soft-synthesizers or other sound modules.

Copyright
You can download and enjoy the music files, but refrain from re-distribution without permission, except for the case that  you use them at a classroom for educational purposes. Please e-mail me when you  use the file(s) as background music of your web page.

Mail-address:

Recorder Midi
Guitar Midi
Other Classical Midi
MP3 Files
An attempt to the Optimum Temperament
Link
About me

Back to Main

 

 

 

Recorder Midi

Composer Title Sub-Title Instruments Time Size Upload Arrange
Anonym Green sleeves to a Ground
Recorder & Guitar 5'11" 20K 03.9.03 English old melody / Arr. by Arnold & Carl Dolmetsch
From "The Bird Fancyer's Delight" Starling-Woodlark-Canary Bird-Bullfinch-East India Nightingale Recorder Solo 3'53" 10K 04.01.01 Edited by Stanley Godman
Wie schoen ist es! 2 Recorders and Guitar 1'16" 5k 04.05.03
Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685-1750) Brandenburg Concerto No.4 Allegro-Andante-Presto Solo Violin, 2 Recorders, Bass Continuo, and Orchestra 16'30" 170K 04.2.28
Suite No.2 for Orchestra Rondeau 2 Recorders and Strings 1'57" 11K 99.1.17
Fuge in G-minor 5 Recorders 3'52" 14K 03.12.06 Y.Tanaka
Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770?-1827) Allegro for a flute clock 3 Recorders 2'23" 11K 03.12.14 F.Spiegel
Boccherini, Luigi (1743-1805) String Quintet Op.13-5 Minuet 3 Recorders 3'42" 13K 03.12.14 B.Fujii
Couperin, Francois (1668-1733) Le Rossignol en amour Recorder, Harpsicord 3'40" 9K 04.01.01
de Fesch, Willem (1687-1757?) Recorder Sonata in G Largo-Allemanda-Aria-Gavotta Recorder, Organ 8 '11" 27K 03.9.03
Handel, Georg Friedrich (1685-1759) Recorder Sonata in G-minor Op.1-2 Larghetto-Andante-Adagio-Presto Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 8 '17" 37K 03.10.01
Recorder Sonata in A-minor Op.1-4 Larghetto-Allegro-Adagio-Allegro Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 10'33" 55K 03.10.01
Recorder Sonata in C Op.1-7 Larghetto-Allegro-Larghetto-A tempo di Gavotti-Allegro Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 12'15" 55K 03.11.24
Recorder Sonata in F Op.1-11 Larghetto-Allegro-Siciliana-Allegro Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 7'44" 35K 03.9.03
Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809) String Quartet Op.3 No.5 Mov.2 Serenade 4 Recorders 3'16" 12K 03.12.15
Loeillet, Jean-Baptiste (1680-1730) Recorder Sonata in A-minor Op.1-1 Adagio-Allegro-Adagio-Giga(Allegro) Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 11'06" 43K 03.9.03
Recorder Sonata in B-flat Op.3-9 Largo-Allegro-Largo-Giga(Allegro) Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 8 '51" 41K 03.11.24
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791) Concerto for Recorder and Orchestra in D Recorder and Orchestra 9'08" 66K 04.4.09
Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da (1525?-1594) Ricercare (Quinto Tono) 4 Recorders 2'58" 13K 00.5.07 D.G.Murray
Quantz, Johann Joachim (1697-1773) Trio Sonata in C Affettuoso-Alla breve-Larghetto-Vivace Recorder, Flute, Harpsicord, and Cello 12'57" 64K 03.8.09
Sammartini, Giuseppe (1695-1750) 12 Sonatas No.1 in F (Allegro-Adagio-Allegro) 2 Recorders, Harpsicord, Cello 4'53" 29K 00.7.29
No.2 inF (Allegro-Adagio-Allegro) 2 Recorders, Harpsicord, Cello 5'27" 38K 03.11.24
Sarony, L Swiss Melody 4 Recorders 2'17" 7K 05.12.06 M.Tshira
Scarlatti, Domenico (1685-1757) Suite for Recorder Quartet Minuet-Pastorale-Allegro-Andante comodo 4 Recorders 6'05" 21K 00.2.22 A.Goldsbrough
Schickhardt, Johann Christian (1680?-1762?) Concerto 1 in C Allegro-Adagio-Vivace-Allegro 2 Recorders, 2 flutes,  harpsicord, Cello 10'11" 75K 03.11.24
Telemann, Georg Philipp (1681-1767) Trio Sonata in C Grave -Andante -Presto -Largo- Corinna(Allegrretto) -Clelia(Vivace) -Dido(Triste-Disperato) 2 Recorders and Guitar 14'58" 59K 03.9.03 F.Kitamikado
Recorder Sonata in F-minor Triste-Allegro-Andante-Vivace Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 11'04" 47K 03.10.01
Recorder Sonata in F Vivace-Largo-Allegro Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 5'46" 31K 03.10.01
Recorder Sonata in C Cantabile-Allegro-Grave-Vivace Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 8'06" 33K 03.10.01
Recoreder Sonata in D-minor Affettuoso-Presto-Grave-Allegro Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 10'24" 54K 03.9.03
Recorder Sonata in C Adagio-Allegro -Adagio-Allegro- Larghetto-Vivace Recorder, Harpsicord, Cello 8'42" 38K 03.9.03
Vivaldi, Antonio (1678-1741) Concerto in C for Piccolo Recorder Allegro-Largo-Allegro molto Recorder, Strings, Harpsicord, Cello 10'38" 53K 00.7.20
Williams, William (1667-1704) Sonata in Imitation of Birds Adagio-Grave-Allegro 2 Recorders, Harpsicord, Cello 6'40" 33K 03.11.24



Back to Page Top         Back to Main



Guitar Midi

Composer Title Time Size Upload
Anonym Romance (Spanish Folk Song) 2'33" 11K 99.1.15
An Ancient Dance 4'09" 10K 00.11.19
Cano, Antonio (1811-1897) Valse 2'38" 9K 00.7.23
Coste, Napoleon (1806-1883) Barcarole 2'06" 6K 01.4.11
Rameau, Jean Philippe (1683-1764) Deux Menuets 4'06" 11K 00.10.03
Scarlatti, Alessandro (1660-1725) Gavotte 3'59" 9K 00.7.23
Sor, Fernando (1778-1839) Variation sur I' Air de la Flute enchantee 7'59" 23K 04.12.13
Menuet Op.11-6 2'40" 8K 99.2.08
Tarrega, Francisco (1852-1909) Recuerdos De La Alhambra 3'57" 22K 08.2.15
Lagrima 2'24" 8K 99.1.15
Capricho Arabe 5'53" 13K 00.5.22
Adelita 2'02" 7K 02.12.08
Tango 2'15" 20K 02.7.07



Back to Page Top         Back to Main


Other Classical Midi


Anonym

Russian folk song
The twelve burglars (4'10" 49K) (00.8.15) (Choir) (Pure)
 (SC-8850 recommended)

American folk song
An old military camp (1'21" 15K) (02.7.30)
Arr: O.Shimizu
(Choir) (Pure)


Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685-1750)

Air (From The Suite No.3 for Orchestra) (4'57" 69K) (01.3.23)
(Strings)
Menuet (1'42" 5K) (02.9.22)
(Harpsicord) (Mean-tone)


Chopin, Frederic (1810?-1849)

Waltz "Puppy" Op.64-1 (2'06" 15K) (04.7.11)
(Piano)


Dowland, John (1563-1626)

"Now, o now I need must part" (2'37" 25K) (00.1.22)
(Choir) (Mean-tone)

Handel, Georg Friedrich (1685-1759)

Concerto Grosso Op.6-10 in D minor (16' 20" 76K) (01.02.24)
Overture-Allegro-Air-Allegro-Allegro-Allegro moderato
(String Orchestra)
Halleluja (3' 56" 47K) (01.07.08)
(Choir, Orchestra, Organ, Harpsicord)


Lassus, Orlande de (1532?-1594)

Echo song (1'36" 41K) (00.1.22)
(Choir) (Mean-tone)


Marschner, Heinrich (1795-1861)

Standchen (2'23" 24K) (02.4.30)
(Choir) (Mean-tone)


Mozart, Leopold (1719-1787)

Kinder Symphonie (10'57" 132K) (04.03.24)
Allegro-Menuetto-Final
(Toys and Strings) (Optimum)


Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791)

Divertimento No.17 K.334 Mov.3 Menuetto (04'27" 34K) (00.8.23)
(Strings and French Horns) (Mean-tone)
Serenade "Eine kleine Nachtmusik" K.525 (19'31" 175K) (04.4.18)
Allegro-Romanze(Andante)-Menuetto(Allegretto)-Rondo(Allegro)
(Strings)

Vivaldi, Antonio (1678-1741)

Concertos "The Four Seasons"
Spring Op.8-1 (10'33" 60K) (02.03.30)
Summer Op.8-2 (10'26" 85K) (01.09.29)
Autumn Op.8-3 (10'56" 67K) (01.10.12)
Winter Op.8-4 (8'51" 67K) (02.03.06)

Others

From Songs for Schoolchildren in Japan
Arranged for Music Box by Makoyan

Anonym
Chorus of Insects (1'44" 4K) (03.09.08)
Fun in Snowfall (0'54" 3K) (02.05.01)
Winter Night (0'57" 2K) (00.10.08)
Koyama, Sakunosuke (1863-1927)
Summer Has Come! (0'52" 3K) (00.10.08)
Minami, Yoshie (1881-1944)
A Festival of the Village Shrine (1'24" 15K) (02.07.21)
Okano, Tei-ichi (1878-1941)
A Brook in Spring (1'12" 3K) (02.06.01)
Night of Hazy Moon (1'21" 3K) (01.04.25)
Autumn Leaves (1'28" 3K) (00.10.08)
My Home Village (1'22" 3K) (02.05.06)

Hymn <SC88Pro, SC8850 recommended>

Converse, Charles Crozat (1868)
What a Friend (4'06" 15K) (01.02.11) (Choir and Organ) (Pure)
John Hugh McNaughto (1829-1901)
Home (3'58" 42K) (01.02.11) (Choir and Organ) (Pure)


Christmas Songs <SC88Pro, SC8850 recommended>

Gruber, Franz Xerver (1787-1863)
Silent Night (3'13" 12K) (02.11.09) (Choir and Organ)
Mendelssohn, Felix (1809-1847)
Hark! the Herald Angels Sing (3'09" 18K) (02.10.14) (Choir and Organ)
French old Carol
Gloria (3'29" 18K) (02.10.24) (Choir and Organ)
Sicilian melody
O Sanctissima, O Purissima (1'43" 10K) (02.10.30) (Choir and Organ)
English traditional melody
The first Noel the angels did say (2'42" 14K) (02.11.02) (Choir and Organ)
Latin Hymn of 17th or 18th Century
Adeste fidele laeti triumphantes (2'37" 13K) (02.11.03) (Choir and Organ)
Phillips Brooks
O little town of Bethlehem (2'35" 12K) (02.11.04) (Choir and Organ)
Willis, Richard Storrs
lt came upon the midnight clear (2'42" 13K) (02.11.10) (Choir and Organ)
Handel, Georg Friedrich (1685-1759)
Hark, the glad sound! the Saviour comes (1'55" 14K) (02.12.14) (Choir and Organ)

Back to Page Top         Back to Main



MP3 Files


@iDrDaF@Menuet <Harpsicord> 1'41" 2.374MB

@fDeDgF@Recorder Sonata Op.1-7 in C <Recorder, Harpsicord, and Cello>

Larghetto 2'26" 3.432MB
Allegro 2'18" 3.2240MB
Larghetto 2'04" 2.927MB
A tempo di Gavotti 2'43" 3.841MB
Allegro 2'45" 3.874MB

  L.Sarony/(arr.M.Tahira):@@Swiss melody @3.205MB (2005.12.6 revised)

  Johann Joachim Quantz:  Trio Sonata in C (Recorder, Flute, Cello, Harpsicord) (2006/06/05)

Affettuoso 3'14" 4.555MB
Alla breve 2'40" 3.754MB
Larghetto 3'31" 4.965MB
Vivace 3'37" 5.095MB

Leopord Mozart: Toy Symphony (Orchestra, Toys) (2006/06/17)

Allegro 4'32" 6.392MB
Menuetto 5'03" 7.124MB
Finale 1'29" 2.102MB

Joseph Haydn : String Quartet Op.3-5 Mov.2 "Serenade"(Alto Recorder 1, Bass Recorder 2, Great Bass Recorder 1) (2006/6/22) (3'22" 4.748MB)

Nine Songs for Japanese School Children@(Music Box) (2006/06/28) (10'50" 15.245MB)

Antonio Vivaldi : Concertos 'Four Seasons' Op. 8 (2006/07/28)

Spring (Op.8-1) 10'39" 14.986MB
Summer(Op.8-2) 10'32" 14.822MB
Fall(Op.8-3) 11'03" 15.544MB
Winter(Op.8-4) 9'43" 13.678MB



Back to Page Top         Back to Main


An Attempt to the Optimum Temperament

by Makoyan (August 22, 1999)(Revised, September 8, 1999)

1. Introduction
2. Approach using the least-square method
3. Characteristics of the newly introduced temperament

HOME 

1. Introduction

Many of the widely used musical instruments, especially those with a keyboard, and MIDI sound modules are tuned in the '12-tone equal temperament', which consists of 12 tones of equal interval to make up an octave. It has an amazing advantage that it is adaptable to vast variety of tonalities, and its invention, no doubt, greatly enriched musical expressions.

Unfortunately, however, the '12-tone equal temperament' has a weak point that the consonance of the chords is somewhat imperfect. The word 'consonance' implies physically that the frequencies of two tones make a simple ratio. For example, when the ratio of frequencies of 2 tones is 3 to 2, these two tones make a consonant pair. This relationship is called 'pure 5'. Similarly, two tones with frequencies that make a ratio 5 to 4, are also consonant and called 'pure major 3'.

The intervals of 'pure 5' and 'pure major 3' are quite close to the 'perfect 5' and the 'major 3' in the equal temperament, respectively, as shown below, and the equal temperament is accepted widely with no serious problems. But, for ones that seek for more consonant music the difference is sometimes not small enough to be negligible.

According to literature, the 12-tone equal temperament had not been spread in Europe until the end of 19'th century, and musical instruments in old time were tuned in various ancient temperaments, for example, Pythagorean, Meantone, Werkmeister's and Kirnberger's. One of the common characteristics of these ancient temperaments is that some reference intervals such as 'pure 5' or 'pure major 3', all distinguishable by ear were used to determine the pitch of individual tones, because the musical instruments had to be tuned by ear. Depending on what reference intervals to be adopted and where to apply them, various types of temperaments were invented after repeated try and error.

Once a new temperament was introduced, its characteristics were examined, for example, how it can harmonize tonic, dominant and sub-dominant chords in one tonality, and how it has to sacrifice consonance of the chords in other tonalities. In general, the more a temperament is specialized in one tonality, the poorer is the consonance in other tonalities.

Recent development of technology is now making it possible to tune musical instruments with electronic methods instead of the well-trained ear. Then, in building a temperament we can forget the reference intervals. Now that we are free from the reference intervals, we can reverse the procedure. First we give the conditions of a temperament by describing the extent of specialization to one tonality. Then we seek for a unique solution that satisfies the given conditions best. We adopt a technique of the least-square method, which is popular in the Theory of Error. The new temperament thus obtained will be called the 'Optimum Temperament'.

 

2. Approach using the least-square method

We consider the twelve tones [C, C#, D, Eb, E, F, F#, G, Ab, A, Bb, B] that make up an octave. The pitch of these tones are denoted using lower-case characters as [c, c#, d, eb, e, f, f#, g, ab, a, bb, b]. For expressing the pitch we use a unit called 'cents'. A cent is 1/100 of the interval of semitone in the '12-tone equal temperament'. The origin is placed at C (c=0). Then, in the '12-tone equal temperament', we can write

c=0
c#=100
d=200
eb=300
e=400
f=500
f#=600
g=700
ab=800
a=900
bb=1000
b=1100

In terms of cents, the intervals of the 'pure 5' and 'pure major 3' are expressed as 702 and 386 cents, respectively, and are a little different from the 'perfect 5' (700) and 'major 3' (400) in the equal temperament. Usually most of us are not aware of the little dissonance of the chords in the equal temperament, but it is worthwhile to seek for a more consonant scale.

First, we will try to find a scale in which every 'perfect 5' is 702 cents and every 'major 3' is 386 cents. The requirements are written as,

g-c=702
ab-c#=702
a-d=702
bb-eb=702
b-e=702
c-f=702-1200
c#-f#=702-1200
d-g=702-1200
eb-ab=702-1200
e-a=702-1200
f-bb=702-1200
f#-b=720-1200

e-c=386
f-c#=386
f#-d=386
g-eb=386
ab-e=386
a-f=386
bb-f#=386
b-g=386
c-ab=386-1200
c#-a=386-1200
d-bb=386-1200
eb-b=386-1200

These are a set of simultaneous equations for the variables [c, c#, d, eb, e, f, f#, g, ab, a, bb, b]. Since we know that c=0, the number of unknowns is 11, while the number of equations is 24, and therefore, it is not possible to find solutions that strictly satisfy all of the requirements.

Then we will seek for solutions that best fit the requirements as follows. Even though the given conditions are written as a set of equalities, the left-hand side does not coincide with the right-hand side, and the small discrepancies are taken as errors. We seek for [c, c#, d, eb, e, f, f#, g, ab, a, bb, b] that makes the sum of these errors squared minimum. This is the principle of the least-square method. For detailed procedure the readers are referred to some math textbook. Anyway, the solutions that best fit the given simultaneous equations are,

c=0
c#=100
d=200
eb=300
e=400
f=500
f#=600
g=700
ab=800
a=900
bb=1000
b=1100

These are nothing but the equal temperament! In other word, if we seek for pitches of the twelve tones that apply equally to every tonality, the resulting solution is the 'equal temperament', and this is not surprising.

Now we will proceed to the next stage. In the above discussion, we gave exactly the equal importance to all of the 24 equations. Instead, we assign different importance to each of the members of the simultaneous equations. Here, we will seek for solutions favorable to C-major. We also give some considerations to A-minor as a relative key. The conditions are as follows:

(1) We assume the following equations to be five times as important. These are major 3's that appear in the tonic, dominant and sub-dominant chord in C-major.

e-c=386
a-f=386
b-g=386

(2) Similarly, we assume that the following equations are three times as important, for they appear in perfect 5 in the tonic, dominant and sub-dominant in C-major.

g-c=702
d-g=702-1200
c-f=702-1200

(3) We give some consideration to the perfect 5, D-A, which appears by extension of dominant chord further up by 5 degrees, giving it a weight 2.

a-d=702

(4) Next, we consider the consonance of A-minor. For major 3, we give a weight 3 to the following equation that appears in the dominant chord in A-minor.

ab-e=386

(5) Also, we give a weight 2 to the following two equations that appear in A-minor.

b-e=702
e-a=702-1200

(6) Finally, all other equations have a weight 1.

ab-c#=702
bb-eb=702
c#-f#=702-1200
eb-ab=702-1200
f-bb=702-1200
f#-b=720-1200
f-c#=386
f#-d=386
g-eb=386
bb-f#=386
c-ab=386-1200
c#-a=386-1200
d-bb=386-1200
eb-b=386-1200

Now we completed all the conditions by giving different weights to the members of the simultaneous equations. To give a weight 5 to some equation, for example, implies that the equation appears five times in the set of simultaneous equations. In the strict algebra, multiple description of the same equation in a set of simultaneous equations does not make sense, but in the treatment of Error it does.

The solutions that best fit the given conditions are obtained using the least-square method and the results are,

c=0
c#=93
d=196
eb=293
e=391
f=500
f#=594
g=699
ab=789
a=891
bb=996
b=1090

These are the 12 tones in the Optimum Temperament obtained under conditions (1) - (6).

 

3. Characteristics of the newly introduced scale

 

We can check the behavior of the Optimum Temperament obtained in the previous section using the Consonance Diagram as shown above. The twelve axes correspond to the twelve tones C, G, D, ..... , Bb and F, respectively. The coordinate on each axis indicates how a given interval, say, major 3 made upon the note of the axis is close to the that in just intonation. For example, take a look at the red line, which shows the consonance of major 3 in the Optimum Temperament. The coordinate of the red line on the C-axis is read as 5. This indicates the following situation. Using the conclusion in the previous section, the interval of major 3 upon C is evaluated as,

e-c=391-0=391

This is larger than the pure major 3 (386) by 5 cents. Then, the coordinate of the red line on the C-axis is 5. Similarly, the coordinate of the red line (major 3) on the G-axis is,

b-g-386=1090-699-386=5

The dark blue line indicates the consonance of perfect 5. For example, the perfect 5 on C is evaluated as,

g-c-702=699-0-702=-3

which implies that the perfect 5 on C is smaller than the pure 5 by 3 cents. Likewise the green line indicates the consonance of minor 3.

For comparison, consonance for the equal temperament is also shown on the diagram (perfect 5 by light blue line, major 3 by pink line and minor 3 by orange line).

The diagram clearly shows that the consonance of tonic (C-E-G), dominant (G-B-D) and sub-dominant (F-A-C) in C-major are much better than in the equal temperament. Chords (A-C-E), (E-As-E) and (D-F-A) in A-minor are also acceptable. The intervals of major 3 on Eb, Ab, C# is somewhat large, but these intervals seldom appear in C-major or A-minor and this does not bring about serious dissonance. Other intervals are more or less like those in the equal temperament, and the readers will easily see the advantage of the Optimum Temperament.

For guests who use a GS sound module, a MIDI file ('The Wild Roses' by Werner) is given below to compare several different scales. The same melody will be repeated three times, first in equal temperament, next in just intonation, and last in Optimum Temperament. Note that all the tuning controls are executed by sending system exclusive messages of GS format, and ignored by other sound modules.

nobara_epo.mid

Some other MIDI files tuned in the Optimum Temperament are presented on Makoyan's MIDI page. I hope you enjoy the beautifully harmonized music.



Back to Page Top         Back to Main



Link


For more MIDI files, visit Standard MIDI Files on the Net
The Internet MIDI Community's Comprehensive List of Sites with MIDI Files.
MidiCity
The Recorder Home Page by Nicholas S. Lander.
Recorder Music by Geoff Grainger. He also operates the Recorder Music Webring.
MIDI Search Engine: Let MIDI Explorer Find Your Files
Gabriel Mihai's Music Page J.S.Bach, Midi files, Original Pieces.
MIDI works by M.Sugatani
Musical Connections for General Music Web-based resources for the elementary general music program, by Sandra L. Nelson.
The Classical Net Reviews of CDs, files and links to classical music web sites.
Kids' Connections A page for kids and  learning music. Lessons and links to musical sites.
Minoru Yoshizawa,  a recorder player of Japan
The Recorder Shrine Introduction to the Recorder, some audio files and links to recorder sites.
Concert Hall by Arman Midi files of Classical music, classical composer database etc...
Musici Scholae Flandrianae A unique site focused on Midi files of Flemish school


Back to Page Top         Back to Main



About me

Nickname: Makoyan, or some American friends call me Mako..

Born on May 25, 1941. My birthday may have something to do with the fact
that I love 'Eine kleine Nachtmusik'(K525)!

Brought up in a beautiful, small village in Shimane Prefecture, western Japan.

Job: I used to teach Earth sciences in a teachers college. Majored in Geophysics
(Meteorology), but now retired. Received the degree of Ph.D. in Science from Kyoto University.
Major interest  has been in detecting weak infrasound, or sound waves with frequencies
lower than the limit of human audibility. Infrasound arrives from distant volcanic
eruptions, ocean waves in stormy regions, violent convective clouds, earthquakes,
etc. Indeed, I enjoy music originated by the Nature.

Other hobbies: Wandering about nearby mountains and hills. I also enjoy golf.


Back to Page Top